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What to know about apples

Apples are a popular fruit, containing antioxidants, vitamins, dietary fiber, and a range of other nutrients. Due to their varied nutrient content, they may help prevent several health conditions.

Apples come in a variety of shapes, colors, and flavors and provide a range of nutrients that can benefit many different aspects of a person’s health.

For example, they may help reduce the risk of cancer, obesity, heart disease, diabetes, and several other conditions.

In this article, learn more about the nutritional content of apples and how they may benefit a person’s health.

Benefits
The nutrients in apples provide a range of health benefits.

Apples are rich in fiber, vitamins, and minerals, all of which benefit health. They also provide an array of antioxidants Trusted Source. These substances help neutralize free radicals.

Free radicals are reactive molecules that can build up as a result of natural processes and environmental pressures. If too many free radicals accumulate in the body, they can cause oxidative stress, and this can lead to cell damage. This damage can contribute to a range of conditions, including cancer and diabetes.

Apples contain a range of antioxidants, including Trusted Source:

  • quercetin
  • catechin
  • phloridzin
  • chlorogenic acid

Neurological health and dementia

A 2019 laboratory study concluded that quercetin has a neuroprotective effect, possibly because it prevents the creation of reactive species. It appears to help neurons survive and continue to function. It may therefore help prevent age-related neuron loss.

In 2015, the results of a mouse studyTrusted Source suggested that high dose quercetin supplementation may help protect cells from the type of damage that can lead to Alzheimer’s disease.

It is worth noting that most studies of this type used high doses of quercetin that are unlikely to be present in normal dietary sources. In addition, scientists need to do more studies in humans before they can confirm that quercetin improves neurological health in people.

Stroke

An older studyTrusted Source from 2000 looked at how consuming apples over 28 years affected the risk of stroke in 9,208 people.

The authors found that those who ate the most apples had a lower risk of thrombotic stroke.

Apples contain many nutrients that may lower the risk of stroke. One 2017 reviewTrusted Source found, for example, that people who consume the most fiber appear to have a lower risk of cardiovascular disease, coronary heart disease, and stroke.

A medium sized apple around 3 inches in diameter and weighing 182 grams (g) provides 4.37 gTrusted Source of fiber. That is around 13–20%Trusted Source of an adult’s daily requirement, depending on their age and sex.

Cholesterol

One 2013 study found that eating raw apples lowered levels of low-density lipoprotein cholesterol among healthy people, but that drinking clear apple juice did not have the same impact. The authors therefore conclude that it is the fiber in apples that helps reduce cholesterol.

Heart health

Apples containTrusted Source fiber, vitamin C, antioxidants, and potassium. A medium sized apple providesTrusted Source the following:

  • 13–20% of a person’s daily fiber needs
  • 9–11% of a person’s daily vitamin C needs
  • 4% of a person’s daily potassium needs

Fiber appears to help manage blood pressure, which may reduce the risk of cardiovascular disease.

Vitamin C is an antioxidant that, alongside other antioxidants, may play a roleTrusted Source in protecting some aspects of heart health. Vitamin C may also boost the immune system and help defend the body from infections and diseases.

Potassium helps relax the blood vessels, reducing the risk of high blood pressure and cardiovascular complications.

Diabetes

In 2013, a population study found that people who replaced three servings per week of fruit juice with the same amount of whole fruit, including apples, had a 7%Trusted Source lower risk of developing type 2 diabetes than those who did not eat fruit.

Also, those who consume the most fiber have a lower risk of developing type 2 diabetes, suggested one 2011 reviewTrusted Source. People who already have diabetes and follow a high fiber diet may also have lower blood sugar levels.

The American Diabetes Association recommend eating fresh fruit, including apples, to satisfy a sweet tooth and provide nutrition. However, they remind people to account for the carbohydrate content in the fruit.

A medium apple containsTrusted Source 25.1 g of carbohydrate, of which 18.9 g is sugar. However, it also provides fiber and other nutrients, which means that, as a sweet snack, it has additional health benefits.

Is yogurt good for people with diabetes? Find out here.

Cancer

Consuming antioxidant-rich foods may help prevent the oxidative stress that causes cell damage and may lead to the development of certain cancers. Apples are a good source of antioxidants.

One meta-analysis from 2016 concluded that consuming apples may help lower the risk of lung cancer, breast cancer, and colorectal cancer, among other types.

Fiber may also help reduce the risk of colon cancer, according to a meta-analysisTrusted Source published in 2018.

Obesity

According to a 2019 rodent studyTrusted Source, apples contain bioactive compounds that may help promote healthful gut bacteria, which may help optimize the health of people with obesity.

The authors looked at how eating apples might affect the gut microbiota of rats. The changes they observed suggested that apple consumption may help humans with obesity.

Fiber can also help a person feel full for longer, making them less likely to overeat.

Nutrition

The table below shows the amount of each nutrient in a medium sized raw appleTrusted Source weighing around 182 g.

It also shows how much an adult needs of each nutrient, according to the 2015–2020 Dietary Guidelines for AmericansTrusted Source. Needs vary according to the individual’s age and sex.

Nutrient Amount in 1 apple Daily adult requirement
Energy (calories) 94.6 1,800–3,000
Carbohydrate (g) 25.1, including 18.9 g of sugar 130
Fiber (g) 4.4 22.4–33.6
Calcium (milligrams [mg]) 10.9 1,000–1,300
Phosphorus (mg) 20 700
Magnesium (mg) 9.1 320–420
Potassium (mg) 195 4,700
Vitamin C (mg) 8.37 75–90
Folate (micrograms [mcg]) 5.46 400
Choline 6.19 425–550
Beta-carotene (mcg) 49.1 No data
Lutein and zeaxanthin (mcg) 52.8 No data
Vitamin K (mcg) 4 90–120

Applies also provide iron, vitamin A, some B vitamins, and vitamin E.

How can other fruits benefit a person’s health? .

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